Flat feet and fallen arches refer to the same thing. It's a downward sagging of the inside edge of the foot during standing or walking. The front-to-back arches (called the longitudinal arches) are natural curves along the bottoms of both feet that are supported by muscles and ligaments. When these muscles and ligaments give way, the arches sag with each step. When the arches sag, your weight is shifted toward your big toes.
Footwear: shoes which limit toe movement; high heels. Barefoot walking may be protective. A tight Achilles tendon or calf muscles (heel cord contracture). This may help to cause Pes Planus, or may contribute to symptoms such as foot pain when there is existing Pes Planus. Obesity. Other bony abnormalities, eg rotational deformities, tibial abnormalities, coalition (fusion) of tarsal bones, equinus deformity. Ligamentous laxity, eg familial, Marfan's syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Down's syndrome. Other factors causing foot pronation, eg hip abductor weakness and genu valgum.
Most patients who suffer from flat feet or fallen arches often do not complain of any symptoms whatsoever. However, on some occasions, patients may find that their feet are fatigued fairly easily and following activity on long periods of standing may have a painful foot or arch. On occasions, swelling may be seen on the inner aspect of the foot and performing certain movements may be painful and difficult. Some patients who have flat feet may find that their feet tend to roll in (over-pronate) a lot more when they walk and run. As a result, they may experience damage to the ankle joint and the Achilles tendon, as well as excessive shoe wear.
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical and foot exam will be done. Flat feet can be diagnosed by appearance. To determine if the foot is rigid, you may be asked to do some simple tasks.
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Non Surgical Treatment
Flat feet and fallen arches can be treated effectively by wearing an orthotic insert in your shoes. Orthotics can be custom-made and prescribed by your foot specialist (podiatrist), or you can use a so called pre-made foot orthotic. Most people do not require expensive custom-made orthotics to combat excess pronation, unless they have a specific medical foot condition. Orthotic insoles were developed to correct excess pronation, thereby providing sustainable, long-lasting pain relief to many aches and pains in a natural way. Comfort, Casual and Sports are products which promote excellent biomechanical control of the foot.
Rarely does the physician use surgery to correct a foot that is congenitally flat, which typically does not cause pain. If the patient has a fallen arch that is painful, though, the foot and ankle physicians at Midwest Orthopaedics at Rush may perform surgery to reconstruct the tendon and "lift up" the fallen arch. This requires a combination of tendon re-routing procedures, ligament repairs, and bone cutting or fusion procedures.
Patients may go home the day of surgery or they may require an overnight hospital stay. The leg will be placed in a splint or cast and should be kept elevated for the first two weeks. At that point, sutures are removed. A new cast or a removable boot is then placed. It is important that patients do not put any weight on the corrected foot for six to eight weeks following the operation. Patients may begin bearing weight at eight weeks and usually progress to full weightbearing by 10 to 12 weeks. For some patients, weightbearing requires additional time. After 12 weeks, patients commonly can transition to wearing a shoe. Inserts and ankle braces are often used. Physical therapy may be recommended. There are complications that relate to surgery in general. These include the risks associated with anesthesia, infection, damage to nerves and blood vessels, and bleeding or blood clots. Complications following flatfoot surgery may include wound breakdown or nonunion (incomplete healing of the bones). These complications often can be prevented with proper wound care and rehabilitation. Occasionally, patients may notice some discomfort due to prominent hardware. Removal of hardware can be done at a later time if this is an issue. The overall complication rates for flatfoot surgery are low.